First Declension; Nominative; Genitive;
Fresco of Spring from a villa wall in Stabiae
Latin nouns are grouped together in different declensions. All nouns which use the same case endings belong to the same declension.
Nouns of the first declension may be recognized by the -ae ending of the genitive singular. First declension nouns are declined like puella, girl. The base of the first declension noun is found by dropping the -ae ending of the genitive singular; the endings are then added to this base. The genitive of puella is puellae; its base is puell.
FIRST DECLENSION NOUNS
|a girl (the girl)
of a girl (the girl)
to/for a girl (the girl)
a girl (the girl)
[from|with|in|by] a girl (the girl)
|girls (the girls)
of girls (the girls)
to/for girls (the girls)
girls (the girls)
[from|with|in|by] girls (the girls)
Nominative as Subject
The subject of a verb (i.e., the person, place, or thing about which something is said is in the nominative case.
A noun used with a linking verb to define or identify the subject is also in the nominative. Such a noun is called a predicate nominative, or predicate noun, or subjective complement.
Asia est prōvincia
Asia is a province
GENITIVE OF POSSESSION
One of the uses of the genitive case is to show possession.
the farmer’s farmhouse, the farmhouse of the farmer
the farmers’ farmhouses, the farmhouses of the farmers
The English translation of the genitive of posession uses ’s or s ’, or a prepositional phrase with of.
ALBATIVE OF PLACE WHERE
The ablative case is used with certain prepositions to answer the question Where?
agricola est in vīllā.
The farmer is in the farmhouse.
Since proper nouns and adjectives derived from them are the same, or almost the same, in English and Latin, you will not have to spend time memorizing them. For your convenience, however, a glossary is included in the Appendix, so that you will know their declension and (when it is not obvious) their gender.
LEARNING ENGLISH THROUGH LATIN
More than half of our Enlish words come form Latin; so one of the great benefits of studying Latin is the opportunity to develop your English verbal skills. Each vocabulary in the text will be followed by a list of English words derived form the Latin words used in that lesson.
The plan of a basic Roman house: a series of rooms grouped around a small open court, the atrium. One entered via the fauces to find a shallow pool, the impluvium, in the middle of the atrium. Bedrooms, cubicula, occupied the sides of the atrium, while clients waited in the alae (or wings) for the master who worked in his office, the tablinum. A narrow corridor connected the house with the garden, hortus, in the rear so that access was available if the tablinum was occupied.
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate English words derived from the Latin words in this Lesson:
1. He is so _____ that he salutes the flag whenever he sees it; his wife is such a _____ that she salutes it only if it’s carried by a woman. 2. Send this letter _____ air mail. 3. Some Europeans think that American culture is backward and _____. 4. The _____ in this part of the country is flat and uninteresting: I want to find a _____ setting when I build my _____, where I can obserbe the wildlife of the forest.
Using a dictionary, check the derivations of the verb inter and the noun invoice. From which words in this lesson are they derived?
Change from singular to plural, keepng the same case:
1. viā 2. vīlla 3. silvam 4. fēminā 5. prōvinciam
Change from plural to singular, keeping the same case:
1. agricolārum 2. puellae 3. viās 4. fēminārum 5. vīllās
Decline the following nouns. When you do this aloud, remember the rules for placing accent.
1. agricola 2. patria 3. terra
View of excavations of Roman garden apartments, Oastia
Pronounce, and give the case(s) and number(s):
1. fēminīs 2. Eurōpa 3. puellae 4. patriā 5. silvās 6. vīllārum 7. viam 8. prōvinciā 9. Asia 10. terrae
Give the following forms
1. Eurōpa in the dative singular 2. prōvincia in the nominative plural 3. terra in the accusative plural 4. vīlla in the genitive singular 5. Trōia in the ablative singular 6. puella in the dative plural 7. Trōia in the nominative singular 8. agricola in the accusative singular 9. patria in the genitive plural 10. silva in the ablative plural
Translate into Latin
1. The woman is in the farmhouse. 2. A woman is in the farmhouse. 3. There is a woman in the farmhouse. 4. The women are in the farmhouse. 5. There are women in the farmhouse.
1. Fēminae sunt in silvā. 2. Prōvincia est Asia. 3. Puellae in viā sunt. 4. Sunt fēminae in vīllā. 5. In Eurōpā sunt prōvinciae. 6. Viae sunt in puellae patriā. 7. Prōvincia Trōiae sunt in Asiā. 8. Agricolārum vīllae in prōvinciā sunt. 9. Sunt viae in terrīs Europae. 10. In agricolae vīllā sunt silvae.
Translate into Latin
1. Asia is a province. 2. There is a girl on the road 3. The woman is in the woods. 4. Troy is the girl’s fatherland. 5. There are women in the farmhouse. 6. The woman is in the farmhouse. 7. The road is in the province. 8. There are farmhouses on the farmer’s land. 9. The woman’s farmhouse is in the forest. 10. There are roads in the provinces.
Trōia est in Asiā. Trōiae prōvinciae in Asiā sunt. In prōvinciīs Trōiae sunt silvae. In Trōiae terrīs sunt agricolae: Trōia est patria agricolārum. In terrīs agricolārum sunt vīllae. Agricolārum fēminae sunt in vīllīs.
1. Where is Troy? 2. Where are Troy’s provinces? 3. Where are the forests? 4. Of whom is Troy the fatherland? 5. What are one the farmrs’ lands? 6. Where are the farmers’ wives?
The ruins of ancient Troy, which flourished from circa 1800 to 1150 B.C.
It was possibly this city that the Greeks destroyed during the Trojan War.